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R, a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics.


R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. It is a GNU project which is similar to the S language and environment which was developed at Bell Laboratories (formerly AT&T, now Lucent Technologies) by John Chambers and colleagues. R can be considered as a different implementation of S. There are some important differences, but much code written for S runs unaltered under R.

R provides a wide variety of statistical (linear and nonlinear modelling, classical statistical tests, time-series analysis, classification, clustering, ...) and graphical techniques, and is highly extensible. The S language is often the vehicle of choice for research in statistical methodology, and R provides an Open Source route to participation in that activity.

One of R's strengths is the ease with which well-designed publication-quality plots can be produced, including mathematical symbols and formulae where needed. Great care has been taken over the defaults for the minor design choices in graphics, but the user retains full control.

R is an integrated suite of software facilities for data manipulation, calculation and graphical display. It includes

  • an effective data handling and storage facility,
  • a suite of operators for calculations on arrays, in particular matrices,
  • a large, coherent, integrated collection of intermediate tools for data analysis,
  • graphical facilities for data analysis and display either on-screen or on hardcopy, and
  • a well-developed, simple and effective programming language which includes conditionals, loops, user-defined recursive functions and input and output facilities.

Version and Copyright Information

version: R version 2.4.0 (2006-10-03) Copyright (C) 2006 The R Foundation for Statistical Computing ISBN 3-900051-07-0

copyright: R is a collaborative project with many contributors. Type 'contributors()' for more information and 'citation()' on how to cite R or R packages in publications.



Help, Manuals and Documentation

help commands:
R --help

further information:
[evitie@corpus3 ~]> R --help

Usage: R [options] [< infile] [> outfile]

R CMD command [arguments]

Start R, a system for statistical computation and graphics, with the specified options, or invoke an R tool via the 'R CMD' interface.

Options: -h, --help Print short help message and exit --version Print version info and exit --encoding=ENC Specify encoding to be used for stdin RHOME Print path to R home directory and exit --save Do save workspace at the end of the session --no-save Don't save it --no-environ Don't read the site and user environment files --no-site-file Don't read the site-wide Rprofile --no-init-file Don't read the .Rprofile or ~/.Rprofile files --restore Do restore previously saved objects at startup --no-restore-data Don't restore previously saved objects --no-restore-history Don't restore the R history file --no-restore Don't restore anything --vanilla Combine --no-save, --no-restore, --no-site-file, --no-init-file and --no-environ --no-readline Don't use readline for command-line editing --min-vsize=N Set vector heap min to N bytes; '4M' = 4 MegaB --max-vsize=N Set vector heap max to N bytes; --min-nsize=N Set min number of cons cells to N --max-nsize=N Set max number of cons cells to N --max-ppsize=N Set max size of protect stack to N -q, --quiet Don't print startup message --silent Same as --quiet --slave Make R run as quietly as possible --verbose Print more information about progress -d, --debugger=NAME Run R through debugger NAME --debugger-args=ARGS Pass ARGS as arguments to the debugger -g, --gui=TYPE Use TYPE as GUI; possible values are 'X11' (default), 'Tk' and (with package gnomeGUI) 'gnome' --arch=NAME Specify a sub-architecture --args Skip the rest of the command line

Commands: BATCH Run R in batch mode COMPILE Compile files for use with R SHLIB Build shared library for dynamic loading INSTALL Install add-on packages REMOVE Remove add-on packages build Build add-on packages check Check add-on packages LINK Front-end for creating executable programs Rprof Post-process R profiling files Rdconv Convert Rd format to various other formats Rd2dvi Convert Rd format to DVI/PDF Rd2txt Convert Rd format to pretty text Sd2Rd Convert S documentation to Rd format Stangle Extract S/R code from Sweave documentation Sweave Process Sweave documentation config Obtain configuration information about R

Please use 'R CMD command --help' to obtain further information about the usage of 'command'.

Report bugs to <>.


Manuals have not been built because Latex is not available.

  • configure: WARNING: you cannot build DVI versions of the R manuals
  • configure: WARNING: you cannot build PDF versions of the R manuals

License Text

This software is distributed under the terms of the GNU GENERAL
PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2, June 1991.  The terms of this license
are in a file called COPYING which you should have received with
this software.

If you have not received a copy of this file, you can obtain one
via WWW at, or by writing to:

   The Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
   51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.

A small number of files (the API header files and export files,
listed in R_HOME/COPYRIGHTS) are distributed under the
This can be obtained via WWW at, or by writing to the
address above

``Share and Enjoy.''

Other Information

Field of science: Linguistics


License: LicenseTypePGnuGPL

To be copied to:
To be seen at:
See also: KitWiki.SuomenKielipankki:Dev:Linguistics_Software, Old.ToolResources
The users may add their own comments to: ToolResource_R_Comments

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Topic revision: r6 - 2008-11-21 - HennaRiikkaLaitinen
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