ikk332 Ontologiat / Ontologies

Ontologies is an advanced level course on ontologies and their use in language technology. The course is taught by professor Lauri Carlson.
Ontologiat on syventävä kurssi ontologioista ja niiden käytöstä kieliteknologiassa. Kurssia opettaa Lauri Carlson.

This page lists ontology resources by topic. Please contribute!
Tällä sivulla on ontologioihin liittyviä resursseja aihepiireittäin. Jos löydät jotain mikä ei vielä ole listalla, lisää se!

Määritelmiä / Definitions

Wikipedia: Ontology "...an ontology is a data model that represents a set of concepts within a domain and the relationships between those concepts. It is used to reason about the objects within that domain."
Tom Gruber: What is an Ontology? "An ontology is a specification of a conceptualization."
John F. Sowa: Ontology "The subject of ontology is the study of the categories of things that exist or may exist in some domain. The product of such a study, called an ontology, is a catalog of the types of things that are assumed to exist in a domain of interest D from the perspective of a person who uses a language L for the purpose of talking about D."
Ontology Works, Inc: What is Ontology? "'The branch of metaphysics that deals with the nature of being.' In short, ontology is the centuries-old branch of philosophy that has as its subject the unchanging features of the universe."
Raul Corazzon: Ontology. A Resource Guide for Philosophers "Ontology is the theory of objects and their ties."

Kritiikkiä / Criticism

Clay Shirky: Ontology is Overrated: Categories, Links, and Tags "What I think is coming instead are much more organic ways of organizing information than our current categorization schemes allow, based on two units -- the link, which can point to anything, and the tag, which is a way of attaching labels to links. The strategy of tagging -- free-form labeling, without regard to categorical constraints -- seems like a recipe for disaster, but as the Web has shown us, you can extract a surprising amount of value from big messy data sets."

Historiaa / History

SHOE - Simple Ontology HTML Extensions "SHOE is a small extension to HTML which allows web page authors to annotate their web documents with machine-readable knowledge."
DAML - The DARPA Agent Markup Language "The goal of the DAML effort is to develop a language and tools to facilitate the concept of the Semantic Web."
OIL (Ontology Inference/Interchange Language) "...a proposal for a web-based representation and inference layer for ontologies, which combines the widely used modelling primitives from frame-based languages with the formal semantics and reasoning services provided by description logics."

Ontologioita / Ontologies

Swoogle Semanttinen verkkohakukone
Wikipedia: Upper ontology "...an upper ontology (top-level ontology, or foundation ontology) is an attempt to create an ontology which describes very general concepts that are the same across all domains."
koala.owl Koalan ontologia OWL-tiedostona

Kielellisiä semanttisia verkkoja / Linguistic Semantic Webs

WordNet "WordNet is a large lexical database of English [...] Nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are grouped into sets of cognitive synonyms (synsets), each expressing a distinct concept. Synsets are interlinked by means of conceptual-semantic and lexical relations."
Ontology Creation and Use: SENSUS Sensus-projekti tähtää luonnolisen kielen käsittelyyn tarkoitettujen laajojen ontologioiden luomiseen olemassa olevia tietokantoja yhdistelemällä.
John Bateman's ontology portal  

Temaattisia/assosiatiivisia semanttisia verkkoja / Thematic or Associative Semantic Webs

Simple Knowledge Organisation Systems (SKOS) "SKOS is an area of work developing specifications and standards to support the use of knowledge organisation systems (KOS) such as thesauri, classification schemes, subject heading systems and taxonomies within the framework of the Semantic Web."
Wikipedia: Topic Maps "Topic Maps is an ISO standard for the representation and interchange of knowledge, with an emphasis on the findability of information."
Topic Maps Bondin yliopiston Topic Maps -kehitysalusta

Ontologiakieliä / Ontology Languages

Wikipedia: Ontology language "...ontology languages are formal languages used to construct ontologies."

Deskriptiologiikka / Description Logics

Wikipedia: Description logic "Description logics (DL) are a family of knowledge representation languages which can be used to represent the terminological knowledge of an application domain in a structured and formally well-understood way."
Carsten Lutz: Description Logics Deskriptiologiikkaan liittyviä resursseja
Ian Horrocks: Description Logic: Axioms and Rules, 2002 Horrocks avaa ontologioiden ja DAML+OIL-ontologiakielen roolia Semanttisessa verkossa
The Semantic Web: Ontologies and OWL Horrocksin kurssin kurssisivu; lukemista ja materiaaleja
Complexity of DL Reasoning DL "kirjainten" tulkinta (saattaa näkyä parhaiten Firefox-selaimessa)

RDF – Resource Description Framework

Wikipedia:Resource Description Framework "Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a family of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications originally designed as a metadata model but which has come to be used as a general method of modeling information..."
W3C: Resource Description Framework (RDF) Spesifikaatioita, lukemista, sovelluskohteita ynnä muuta
W3C: RDF Vocabulary Description Language 1.0: RDF Schema "This specification describes how to use RDF to describe RDF vocabularies. This specification defines a vocabulary for this purpose and defines other built-in RDF vocabulary initially specified in the RDF Model and Syntax Specification."
W3C: RDF Primer "This Primer is designed to provide the reader with the basic knowledge required to effectively use RDF. It introduces the basic concepts of RDF and describes its XML syntax."
RDFabout.net Joshua Taubererin RDF-resurssisivusto, jossa on muun muassa nopea johdatus RDF:ään.
Dave Beckett's Resource Description Framework (RDF) Resource Guide Laaja resurssilistaus.

OWL – Web Ontology Language

OWL in W3C "OWL is a Web Ontology language." A list of central resources.
OWL overview "The OWL Web Ontology Language is designed for use by applications that need to process the content of information instead of just presenting information to humans."
Owl Abstract Syntax Owl abstract syntax
OWL Concrete Abstract Syntax Manchester syntax

SWRL – Semantic Web Rule Language

A Proposal for a SWRL Extension "This is a description of a proposed extension of SWRL to function-free handle unary/binary first-order logic. This is intended to be a minimal extension that fits well with SWRL, OWL, and RDF."
SWRL: A Semantic Web Rule Language Combining OWL and RuleML, version 0.6 "This document contains a proposal for a Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) based on a combination of the OWL DL and OWL Lite sublanguages of the OWL Web Ontology Language with the Unary/Binary Datalog RuleML sublanguages of the Rule Markup Language."
SWRL: A Semantic Web Rule Language Combining OWL and RuleML, version 0.5 (2003)  
SWRL FOL "This directory contains the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) First Order Logic (FOL) language released by the Joint Committee on 2 November 2004. This is the first release of SWRL FOL."
W3C: RIF RDF and OWL Compatibility "Rules interchanged using the Rule Interchange Format RIF may depend on or be used in combination with RDF data and/or RDF Schema or OWL data models. This document ... specifies compatibility of RIF with the Semantic Web languages RDF and RDFS."
SWRL tutorial  
SWRL Wiki  
SWRL in Protege Discussion with Martin O'Connor of Stanford


ISO 10303-11 "EXPRESS is the data modelling language of STEP and standardized as ISO 10303-11."

FOL (Simple Common Logic)

Simple Common Logic "Simple Common Logic, or SCL, is a proposal for a unified syntactic/semantic framework for expressing full first-order logical content for transmission on a knowledge network such as the Web."

Ontology Alignment / Ontology Matching

Wikipedia: Ontology alignment "Ontology Alignment, or ontology matching, is the process of determining correspondences between concepts. A set of correspondences is also called an alignment."
The Ontology Alignment Source "Ontology alignment is the automated resolution of semantic correspondences between the representational elements of heterogenous sytems. ... The Ontology Alignment Source supports the ontology alignment research community by providing a forum that promotes the sharing and comparison of research data."
OntologyMatching.org "This web site provides a repository of information devoted to different aspects of ontology matching."

Ontology Acquisition

| http://ontoweb-lt.dfki.de/ontology_learn_tools.htm[OntoWeb SIG5 list]] | "A typical approach in ontology learning from text first involves the extraction of (more or less complex) terms from a domain-specific corpus. Extracted terms are statistically processed to determine their relevance for the domain corpus at hand and clustered into groups with the purpose of identifying a taxonomy of potential classes. Additionally, relations can be identified, mostly by computing a statistical measure of connectedness between identified clusters." |

Ohjelmakirjastoja / Programming libraries

Plugineja /Plugins

Visualisoijia / Visualisers

Päättelijöitä / Reasoners

Työkaluja / Tools

Sovelluksia / Applications

Michael Denny




Artikkeleita / Papers

Kirjoja / Books

Oppaita / Guides

Hankkeita / Projects

Ontoweb "This is the community site for Ontoweb, a European Union founded project about Ontology-based information exchange for knowledge management and electronic commerce." 2001-4
Collaborative Guidance and Knowledge Systems "The Collaborative Guidance and Knowledge Systems (CoGKS) project is a follow-on to the three year Multilingual and Mobile Maintenance Man (4M) project."
Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) "The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) researches machine-processable semantics related to, e.g., the Semantic Web. We are located at the Helsinki University of Technology (TKK)."
CO-ODE "The CO-ODE project aims to build authoring tools and infrastructure that make ontology engineering easier. We specifically support the development and use of OWL-DL ontologies..."
Semantic Knowledge Technologies (SEKT) "The EU IST integrated project Semantic Knowledge Technologies (SEKT) developed and exploited semantic knowledge technologies. Core to the SEKT project has been the creation of synergies by combining the three core research areas ontology management, machine learning and natural language processing."
OntoWeb SIG5: Language Technology for the Semantic Web

Yhteisöjä / Communities

Tutkijoita / Researchers

-- LauriCarlson & MarkusKoljonen Jan-Feb 2008

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Topic revision: r17 - 2008-02-26 - LauriCarlson
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