Character Sets of the Corpora at the UHLCS

The character sets used in corpora located at the UHLCS reflect the history of deceloping machine-readable corpora. The original texts which typically are books and newspapers are prepared with different kinds of text editing and type-setting programs and font systems. The original texts were in the machine-readable form, or they are scanned into the electronic form. When the data were adapted into the UNIX operating system, they were edited in the way that all the information in the texts were saved. In the case that the original texts were prepared in the way that there had been several levels in preparing the document (text editing, type setting), these levels were opened separately. After that the data were adapted into the UNIX operating system. In the first years, the texts were adapted into the seven-bit ASCII-code. If in the original texts contained characters which were not available in the ASCII character set, these characters were replaced with a combination of two or several characters. Later, when the eight-bit Latin-1 character set with various extensions was available in the UNIX operating system, also the corpora were adapted into the Laten-1 form. As soon as the UNICODE character sets for different alphabet systems became publicly available, there were several efforts in order to convert the corpora into the UNICODE form. This concerns in particular corpora which originally were prepared with the Cyrillic alphabet system. The data written with the Cyrillic alphabet system and adapted into the Latin-1 character set was planned to be converted back into the Cyrillic alphabet system marked with the UNICODE with the help of small perl-programs, scripts. This work was started with the financial support of the ECHO project (http://www.ling.lu.se/projects/echo/). The work is still in progress (Dec. 2007): in this phase of work, in the data directories there is a sub-directrory which contains basic scripts which can be used in converting the data (the name of the directories: XXX-in–preparation (XXX = abbreviation of the name of the language).

The description of the system used in converting the corpora of the Uralic languages originally were written with the Cyrillic alphabet system into the Latin-1 alphabet is given in the following document:

Pirkko Suihkonen. 1997. Documentation of the Computer Corpora of Uralic Languages at the University of Helsinki. Technical Reports, No. TR-2. Helsinki: Department of General Linguistics, University of Helsinki. Pp. 10–15.

(Pirkko, marraskuu 2007) In preparation...

Character sets in the corpora

A. general-linguistics
  1. afro-asiatic-lgs
    1. cushitic-lgs
      1. somali
        • forthcoming
          • The character set: Scandinavian alphabet in which '', '', '' and corresponding capital letters are marked with numeral codes: \202, \224, \216.
          • Structural encoding: the corpus is organized as follows: the Finnish data is translated into Somali a sentence by sentence. The Finnish and Somali sentences are marked with different kinds of tags.
        • metadata-descriptions
    2. semitic-lgs
      1. hebrew
        • forthcoming
          • Character set: ???
        • metadata-descriptions
  2. indo-european-lgs
    1. germanic-lgs
      1. english
        • gutenberg
          • originals
          • snt
        • susanne
        • World-Street-Journal
        • metadata-descriptions * Character sets: the corpora are prepared with the English alphabet system, and no additional characters are needed. * Structural encoding: (gutenberg and susanne corpora: no additonal structural conding; World-Street-Journal: Sentences, paragraphs, dates, numbers and textual parts are specified with tags.
      2. german
        • forthcoming * Character set: the corpus is prepared with the seven-bit character set, and the vowels originally marked with diacritics are marked with the combinations 'ae', 'oe', and 'ue'.
        • metadata-descriptions
      3. swedish
        • forthcoming
        • metadata-descriptions
      4. yiddish
        • README-Yiddish
        • metadata-descriptions
        • royte-pomerantsen
          • yiddish-texts
            • Character set: in the original texts in Yiddish, the main stress is marked with the acute accent character. The stress is not marked in the Yiddish texts.
    2. greek
      • forthcoming
      • metadata-descriptions
        • Character set: ???
    3. latin
      • apa
        • Character set: the seven-bit ASCII-code. The data is prepared with capital letters.
      • bin
      • metadata-descriptions
    4. slavonic-lgs
      • russian
        • fowler-corpus
          • bin
          • CHARACTER-MAP
          • originals
          • README
          • sgml
          • tmp
            • Character sets: the corpus is in the ASCII form. Some of the Cyrillic characters are replaced with combinations of characters. The character set is described in the README-file.
        • spoken
          • bin
          • originals
          • README
          • sgml
            • Character set: the corpus is in the ASCII form. Some of the Cyrillic characters are replaced with character combinations.
          • titles
          • tmp
        • tampere-corpus
          • AiF
          • Avtopilot
          • Domovoy
          • kp
          • mk
          • mn
          • Nedelja
          • Nezavisimaya
          • Novayagazeta
          • Ogoniok
          • Politru
          • Ptjuch
          • README
          • rg
          • RussZh
          • Segodnja
          • SPVed
          • SvobGr
          • tw-rus
          • Ug
          • Zr
            • Character set: The corpus is in the ASCII-form. The character set is described in detail in the README-file.
        • uppsala-corpus
          • bin
          • originals
          • sgml
          • tmp
            • Character set: the corpus is in the seven-bit ASCII-form. The character set is not described separately.
        • metadata-descriptions
          • Character set:
  3. multilingual-data
    • words
    • metadata-descriptions
      • Character set: character set: the corpora are in the ASCII-form.
  4. uralic-lgs
    1. baltic-finnic-lgs
      1. estonian
        • viro1
          • Character set: the corpus is in the Latin-1 form.
        • viro2
          • Character set: the corpus is in the seven-bit form. The characters formed with diacritics are marked as follows: , , (, , ), {, |, } [, \ and ]; , = *o, *u.
        • metadata-descriptions
      2. finnish
        • bible
          • KRaamattu38
            • Character set: Latin-1 character set. There is also a form in which the characters with diacritics are marked with the numeral codes: '' = \204.
          • KRaamattu92
            • Character set: Latin-1 character set.
          • metadata-descriptions
        • fintag
          • forthcoming
          • metadata-descriptions
        • hkv
            • Character set: the seven-bit ASCII-codes.
          • metadata-descriptions
        • spoken
          • forthcoming
          • metadata-descrptions


B. general-linguistics-kotus

  1. indo-european-lgs
    1. germanic-lgs
      1. swedish
        • forthcoming
        • metadata-descriptions
  2. uralic-lgs
    1. baltic-finnic-lgs
      1. finnish
        • a-contract: Latin-1
        • b-contract: Latin-1
        • ftc: Latin-1
        • originals-copies-memos
        *parole
        Latin-1
        • metadata-descriptions


C. language-departments

    1. germanic-lgs
      1. swedish
        • fisc
        • hki
        • ld2-adm
        • metadata-descriptions
          • Charcter set: seven-bit ASCII code: anf|r s}som folktingets utl}tande f|ljande
    2. niger-congo-lgs
      1. bantu-lgs
        1. swahili
          • bin
          • conjoin
          • dialects
          • d3-adm
          • metadata-descriptions
          • README
          • standard
          • swa-tmp
            • Character set: seven-bit ASCII code. The corpora are described in the README-file.
    3. slavonic-and-baltic-lgs
      1. russian
        • (forthcoming ???)
        • metadata-descriptions


D. multilingual-language-archive

  • All the corpora which were received from the Institute for
Bible Translation before 2007 were written with various text editing and folding programs: MSWord, WordPerfect, Word, PageMaker, etc. The corpora were transformed manually to be used in the UNIX-operating system.

  • With a few exceptions, all the data which was originally
prepared with the Cyrillic alphabet is converted into the UNICODE-format. The work on converting the data into the UNICODE format, and all the versions which are available do not work perfectly. All the scripts which can be used in re-converting the data are available for the users. The scripts are located in the directories XXX-in-preparation (XXX = the abbreviation of the name of the languages). (On the use of the Emacs editor in editing the data in the UNICODE form, please, see the instructions in the file README-emacs-and-UNICODE).

  • Some corpora which originally are written with the Cyrillic or Extended Cyrillic alphabet were converted into the Latin-1 format manually.

  1. chukotko-kamchatkan-lgs
    1. chukchi
      • CKT-in-preparation
      • metadata-descriptions
      • New-Testament
        • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
      • originals
      • README-Chukchi
    2. koryak
      • KPY-in-preparation
      • metadata-descriptions
      • New-Testament
        • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
      • originals
      • README-Koryak
  2. indo-european-lgs
    1. iranian-lgs
      1. west-iranian-lgs
        1. kurdish
          • KUR-in-preparation
          • metadata-descriptions
          • New-Testament
            • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
          • originals
          • README-Kurdish
        2. tajik
          • Bible-of-Children
            • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
          • Books-of-Children
            • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
          • metadata-descriptons
          • originals
          • README-Tajik
          • TKG-in-preparation
      2. east-iranian-lgs
        1. ossete
          • Bible-of-Children
            • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
          • Books-of-Children
            • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
          • metadata-descriptions
          • New-Testament
            • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
          • originals
          • OSE-in-preparation
          • README-Ossete
    2. slavonic-lgs
      1. east-slavonic-lgs
        1. ukrainian
        • Books-of-Children * Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • originals
        • README-Ukrainian
        • UKR-in-preparation
  3. mongolic-lgs
    1. east-mongolic-lgs
      1. kalmyk
        • KGZ-in-preparation
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • originals
        • README-Kalmyk
  4. north-east-caucasian-lgs
    1. avar-andi-tsez-lgs
      1. avar
        • AVR-in-preparation
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • originals
        • README-Avar
    2. lak-dargva-lgs
      1. lak
        • LBE-in-preparation
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • originals
        • README-Lak
    3. lezgi-lgs
      1. tabassaran
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • originals
        • README-Tabassaran
        • TAB-in-preparation
  5. quechuan-lgs
    1. quechua-cuzco
      • metadata-descriptions
      • pacha1.txt
      • pacha2.txt
      • pacha3.txt
      • pacha4.txt
        • Character sets: the data is scanned from the old paper copies, and the scanned version is waiting for proofreading.
      • readme
  6. tungusic-lgs
    1. north-tungusic-lgs
      1. even
        • EVE-in-preparation
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • originals
        • README-Even
      2. evenki
        • Books-of-Children
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • EVN-in-preparation
        • metadata-descriptions
        • originals
        • README-Evenki
    2. south-tungusic-lgs
      1. nanay
        • GLD-in-preparation
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • originals
        • README-Nanai
  7. turkic-lgs
    1. bolgar-turkic-lgs
      1. chuvash
        • CHV-in-preparation
        • metadata-descriptions
        • originals
        • paasonen-texts
          • Character sets: the original text are prepared with the Finno-Ugric transcription system. The corpus is transformed into the Latin-1 format, and the characters used in conversion are not available as such in the UNIX-operation system. Information on the original publication is available in the README-file.
        • README-chuvash
    2. north-turkic-lgs
      1. khakas
        • Books-of-Children
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • KHA-in-preparation
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • originals
        • README-Khakas
      2. tuvin
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • originals
        • README-Tuvin
        • TYV-in-preparation
      3. yakut
        • Bible-of-Children
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • originals
        • README-Yakut
        • SAH-in-preparation
    3. north-west-turkic-lgs
      1. balkar
        • KRC-in-preparation
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • originals
        • Psalms
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • README-Balkar
      2. bashkir
        • BAK-in-preparation
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • originals
        • README-Bashkir
      3. crimean-turkish
        • CRH-in-preparation
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • originals
        • README-Crimean-Turkish
        • wordlist
          • Character set: Latin-1.
      4. kirghiz
        • Books-of-Children
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • KIR-in-preparation
        • metadata-descriptions
        • originals
        • README-Kirghiz
      5. tatar
        • Books-of-Children
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • originals
        • README-Tatar
        • TAT-in-preparation
    4. south-east-turkic-lgs
      1. uighur
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • originals
        • README-Uighur
        • UIG-in-preparation
      2. uzbek
        • Bible-of-Children
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • dictionary
        • metadata-descriptions
        • originals
        • README-Uzbek
        • UZB-in-preparation
    5. south-west-turkic-lgs
      1. azerbaijani
        • AZE-in-preparation
        • metadata-descriptons
        • New-Testament
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • originals
        • README-Azerbaijani
      2. gagauz
        • GAG-in-preparation
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
          • Character sets: the data is in the UNICODE-format.
        • originals
        • README-Gagauz
      3. turkmen
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
          • Character sets: the data is converted manually into the Latin-1 format. There is also a version in the UNICODE-format.
        • Old-Testament
          • The character sets: the data is converted manually into the Latin-1 format. There is also version in the UNICODE-format.
        • originals
        • README-Turkmen
        • TUK-in-preparation
  8. uralic-lgs
    1. baltic-finnic-lgs
      1. ingrian
        • english-translations
          • Character set: Latin-1 format.
        • IZH-in-preparation
        • metadata-descriptions
        • morphologically-tagged-corpora
          • The data in the directory /texts in the morhologically encoded form.
        • originals
        • README-Ingrian
        • texts
          • The character set: the data is in the Scandinavian character set. The corpus is prepared manually from the original data written with the Finno-Ugric transcription system. The corpus is described in the README-file.
      2. dvina-karelian
        • Books-of-Children
          • Character set: the data is transformed manually in to Latin-1 format.
        • KRL-in-preparation
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
          • Character set: the data is converted manually into the Latin-1 format.
        • originals
        • README-Dvina-Karelian
      3. livonian
        • Books-of-Children
          • Character set: the data is converted directly into the UNIX-operating system. The corpus can be converted into the UNICODE-format.
        • LIV-in-preparation
        • metadata-descriptions
        • originals
        • README-Livonian
        • suhonen
          • Character set: the data is converted directly into the Latin-1 format.
      4. livvi
        • Bible-of-Children
          • Character set: the data is converted manually into the Latin-1 format.
        • Books-of-Children
          • Character set: the data is converted manually into the Latin-1 format.
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
          • Gospel-of-John
          • Gospel-of-Mark
            • Character set: the data is converted manually into the Latin-1 format.
          • Gospel-of-Matthew
          • Gospel-of-Luke
            • Character set: the data is converted directly into the Latin-1 format. The rules for converting the data into the UNICODE-format are available.
        • OLO-in-preparation
        • originals
        • README-Livvi
      5. lude
        • LUD-in-preparation
        • metadata-descriptions
        • raport
        • README-Ludian
        • texts
          • Character set: the data is adapted into the Latin-1 format as such. The data is transliterated from the audio-tapes. The basis for the transliteration system and information on the documentation described in the README-file.
        • tmp
      6. vepsian
        • Bible-of-Children
          • Character set: the data is adapted directly into the UNIX operating system. There is a script available for converting the data into the UNICODE format.
        • Books-of-Children
            • Character set: a copy of the data is converted manually into the Scandinavian alphabet. There is also a version converted into the UNICODE format.
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
          • Gospel-of-John
          • Gospel-of-Mark
            • Character set: a copy of the data is converted manually into the Scandinavian alphabet. There is also a version converted into the UNICODE format.
          • Gospel-of-Matthew
            • Character set: the data is converted into the UNICODE format.
        • originals
        • README-Vepsian
        • VEP-in-preparation
    2. mari-lgs
      1. eastern-mari
        • Bible-of-Children
          • Charcter set: the data is adapted into the UNIX operating system. The corpus is also converted into the UNICODE format.
        • EMR-in-preparation
        • metadata-descriptons
        • originals
        • README-Eastern-Mari
      2. western-mari
        • Books-of-Children
          • Charcter set: the data is adapted into the UNIX operating system. The corpus is also converted into the UNICODE format.
        • hill-mari-texts
          • Character set: originally the data is written in the Finno-Ugric transcription system. The data is adapted directly into the UNIX operating system.
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
          • Charcter set: the data is adapted into the UNIX operating system. The corpus is also converted into the UNICODE format.
        • originals
        • README-Western-Mari
        • WMR-in-preparation
    3. mordvin-lgs
      1. erzya
        • Bible-of-Children
          • Charcter set: the data is converted manually into the Latin-1 character set.
        • dictionary
          • Character set: the data is prepared to be converted into the UNICODE character set.
        • epos
          • Character set: the data is prepared to be converted into the UNICODE character set.
        • ERZ-in-preparation
        • historical-word-list
          • Character set: the data is adapted manually into the Latin-1 charcter set. The main word stress is marked in the data.
        • journals
          • Character set: the data is prepared to be converted into the UNICODE character set.
        • metadata-descriptions
        • morphologically-tagged-corpora
          • Character set: the data is converted manually in the Latin-1 character set.
        • New-Testament
          • Character set: the data is adapted in the UNIX operating system. The corpus can be converted into the UNICODE format.
        • novels
          • Character set: (the files abra-*) the data is prepared to be converted into the UNICODE character set.
          • Character set: (other files) the data is prepared to be converted into the UNICODE character set.
        • originals
        • poetry
          • Character set: the data is prepared to be converted into the UNICODE character set.
        • README-Erzya
        • short-stories
          • Character set: (arap-v-*) the data is prepared to be converted into the UNICODE character set.
          • Character set: (other files) the data is prepared to be converted into the UNICODE character set.
      2. moksha
        • Books-of-Children
        • historical-word-list
          • Character set: the data is adapted manually into the Latin-1 charcter set. The main word stress is marked in the data.
        • metadata-descriptions
        • MKS-in-preparation
        • New-Testament
        • novels
        • originals
        • README-Moksha
    4. permic-lgs
      1. komi
        1. permyak
          • Books-of-Children
            • Character set: the data is converted into the UNICODE format.
          • KOM-P-in-preparation
          • metadata-descriptions
          • New-Testament
            • Character set: the data is converted into the UNICODE format.
          • originals
          • README-Komi-Permyak
        2. zyrian
          • Books-of-Children
            • Character set: the data is adapted into the UNIX operating system. The data can be converted into the UNICODE format with the scripts available for users.
          • komi-texts
            • Character set: the data is adapted into the Latin-1 character set manually. Description of the characters is given in the README-file.
          • komi-texts-snt
            • Character set: the data is adapted into the Latin-1 character set manually. Description of the characters is given in the README-file.
          • KOM-Z-in-preparation
          • metadata-descriptions
          • morphologically-tagged-corpora
            • Character set: the data is adapted into the Latin-1 character set manually. Description of the characters is given in the README-file.
          • New-Testament
            • Character set: the data is adapted into the UNIX operating system. The data can be converted into the UNICODE format with the scripts available for users.
          • novels
            • Character set: the data is prepared to be converted into the UNICODE format. Information on the system can be asked from the owner of the corpus.
          • originals
          • originals-novels
          • README-Komi
      2. udmurt
        • Books-of-Children
          • Character set: the data is converted into the UNICODE format.
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament
            • Character set: the data is adapted into the UNIX operating system. The data can be converted into the UNICODE format with the scripts available for users.
          • novels
            • Character set: the data is prepared to be converted into the UNICODE format. Information on the system can be asked from the owner of the corpus.
        • originals
        • README-Udmurt
        • UDM-in-preparation
        • udmurt-snt
          • Character set: the data is converted manually into the Latin-1 character set.
        • udmurt-statistical-data
          • Character set: the numerical data is prepared manually. The encoding deals with grammatical categories. The encoding system is explained in the README files.
        • udmurt-texts-unmodified
          • Character set: the data is converted manually into the Latin-1 character set. The data is the same which is in the directory /udmurt-snt in the sentence per line format.
    5. saami-lgs
      1. kildin-saami
        • Books-of-Children
          • Character set: the data is converted into the UNICODE format.
        • metadata-descriptions
        • originals
        • README-Kildin-Saami
        • SMI-K-in-preparation
      2. northern-saami
        • metadata-descriptions
        • originals
        • README-Northern-Saami
        • report
          • Characater set: the data is converted manually into the Latin-1 format.
        • SMI-N-in-preparation
        • vuolab
      3. ume-saami
        • data
          • Character set: the data is adapted manually into the Latin-1 format.
        • metadata-descriptions
        • originals
        • README-Ume-Saami
        • SMI-U-in-preparation
    6. samoyedic-lgs
      1. enets
        • ENE-in-preparation
        • metadata-descriptions
        • New-Testament * Character set: the data is converted into the UNICODE format.
        • originals
        • README-Enets
      2. kamas
        • metadata-descriptions
        • originals
        • README-Kamas
        • texts-donner
          • Character set: the data is converted manually into the Latin-1 format. The data is described in the README-file.
        • XAS-in-preparation
      3. nenets
        • tundra-nenets
          • metadata-descriptions
          • New-Testament
            • Character set: the data is converted into the UNICODE format.
          • originals
          • README-Nenets
          • sample-sentences
            • Character set: the data is converted manually into the Latin-1 format. The conversion is described in the README-file.
          • YRK-in-preparation
        • forest-nenets
          • forthcoming
      4. selkup
        • h-dialects
        • ivankino-dialect
          • Character set: the data is adapted manually into the Latin-1 format. The character set is described in the README-file.
        • ket-dialect
          • Character set: the data is adapted manually into the Latin-1 format. The character set is described in the README-file.
        • list-of-tags
        • metadata-descriptions
        • originals
        • README-Selkup
        • SEL-in-preparation
        • tundra-dialect
          • Character set: the data is adapted manually into the Latin-1 format. The character set is described in the README-file.
        • tym-dialect
          • Character set: the data is adapted manually into the Latin-1 format. The character set is described in the README-file.
        • upper-ob-dialect
          • Character set: the data is adapted manually into the Latin-1 format. The character set is described in the README-file.
    7. ob-ugric-lgs
      1. khanty
        • atlym-dialect
          • Character set: the data is converted manually into the Latin-1 format. The coding system is available in the set.
        • Books-of-Children
          • Character set: the data is converted into the UNICODE format.
        • kazym-dialect
          • Character set: the data is converted manually into the Latin-1 format. The coding system is available in the set.
        • KHA-N-in-preparation
        • konda-dialect
          • Character set: the data is converted manually into the Latin-1 format. The coding system is available in the set.
        • metadata-descriptions
        • nizjam-dialect
          • Character set: the data is converted manually into the Latin-1 format. The coding system is available in the set.
        • obdorsk-dialect
        • originals
        • README-Khanty
        • rugin
        • synja-dialect
          • Character set: the data is converted manually into the Latin-1 format. The coding system is available in the set.
        • tmp
      2. mansi
        • Books-of-Children
          • Character set: the data is converted into the UNICODE format.
        • metadata-descriptions
        • MNS-in-preparation
        • originals
        • README-Mansi

-- PirkkoSuihkonen - 30 Nov 2007

-- PirkkoSuihkonen - 18 Dec 2007

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Topic revision: r3 - 2007-12-22 - PirkkoSuihkonen
 
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